Webinar: Emerging Location-based Services and Technologies, GeoSurveillance and Social Justice Issues
Date and Time: Wednesday, August 11, 2021 9:30 am - 12:45 pm Australian Eastern Time
Chair(s) of the Webinar and Organizing Committee Member(s): Katina Michael
Host(s) of the Webinar: Katina Michael, Roba Abbas, Jeremy Pitt
Will there be a recording? Panels, plenaries and commentaries will be recorded. Mini-Track Discussions will be partially recorded, meaning the introduction by the speaker will be recorded, but the moderated discussion with the audience will not be recorded to foster an environment for open discussion.
This GeoEthics Webinar will include small group discussions with the audience and will explore social justice issues pertaining to marginalized communities, as a result of the diffusion of emerging location-based services and technologies for geosurveillance used for care and control applications.
This event follows right after the "Public Interest Technology" (PIT) Colloquium Series from the "Society Policy Engineering Collective" (SPEC) at Arizona State University (ASU) and IEEE SSIT Students
You can find more details and register for the pre-event at the links below:
All the Event Proceedings (including the pre-Event) will be found at https://www.katinamichael.com/geoethics21/
Pre-Event More details: Public Interest Technology (PIT) Colloquium Society Policy Engineering Collective (SPEC) at Arizona State University(ASU) / IEEE SSIT Students / AAG Pre-Event https://www.katinamichael.com/geoethics21/2021/7/16/asu-pit-colloquium-ieee-ssit-students-aag-pre-event
Full Webinar Description - This GeoEthics Webinar is dedicated to location-based services and technologies that are both static (e.g. CCTV cameras on a building) and increasingly dynamic (e.g. mobile CCTV cameras on a vehicle). The Webinar introduces the notion of dual use technologies that may have surveillance for care and surveillance for control applications. The thematic areas of concern to be addressed revolve around the various veillances: sur-, data-, sous-, and über-veillance. Emerging technologies of interest in this webinar include IP-based location data collection technologies such as, satellite and low-Earth orbiting technology (e.g. X-Y coordinates), uninhabited aerial vehicles (e.g. drones), wi-fi networks (e.g. campus watch), smart infrastructure (e.g. lampposts), mobile CCTV (e.g. vehicles), body-worn cameras (e.g. digital glass), and smartphones. Thematic areas that will be addressed include “geolocation” and issues pertaining to “social justice”, such as, location-based solutions for those living with dementia or autism, the attitudes and perceptions of youth with respect to location-based digital apps, humanitarian aspects of the collection of identity and location data pertaining to the rights of refugees, or marginalized communities based on segregating factors; indigenous peoples under geosurveillance in the name of smart city safety; location in the context of gender-based violence, for good and for harm; closed campus IOT-based sensors, data privacy and human rights; regulatory tools that may be effective in addressing geolocation issues especially in the context of biosurveillance laws; and finally the role of the professionalization of ethics in the workplace, to allow for a better understanding of how Human Geography and Geographic Information Systems converge to be appropriately applied towards Geotelematics Services (i.e., the convergence of geography, telecommunications, and informatics solutions) in the public interest. The objective is to provide a forum for discussion, working toward enacting positive change, as opposed to further enslaving citizens.
Katina Michael Arizona State University
Advanced Location Services and Social Implications
Katina Michael is a professor at Arizona State University, holding a joint appointment in the School for the Future of Innovation in Society and School of Computing and Augmented Intelligence. She is also the director of the Society Policy Engineering Collective (SPEC) and the Founding Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society. Katina is a senior member of the IEEE and a Public Interest Technology advocate who studies the social implications of technology with an emphasis on systems of innovation. She has held 14 annual workshops in the social implications of national security space and chaired 3 international symposia on technology and society (ISTAS) in Wollongong, Toronto and Phoenix. She is the Senior Editor of the socio-economic impact section in IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine and was the editor in chief of the award-winning IEEE Technology and Society Magazine. In 2019 she took on the role of working group chair for the IEEE P2089 standard. In 2020 she received the ICTO Golden Medal for lifetime achievement award for exceptional contributions to research in information systems, and the IEEE Phoenix section’s Outstanding Member Contributing to Global Humanitarian Projects Award for her contributions to a better understanding of the impact of emerging technologies on humanity. In 2017, she also received the Brian M. O'Connell IEEE Society on Social Implications of Technology (SSIT) Distinguished Service Award.
Roba Abbas University of Wollongong
The Social, Ethical and Regulatory Implications of Location-Based Services: Defining the Elements of a Transdisciplinary Framework
Location-based services (LBS) combine the location or position of a mobile device associated with a given entity, such as an individual or object, with contextual information, to offer value-added service to users. LBS can be deployed in a range of usability contexts for benefit, but may also result in undesirable and or unintended consequences, particularly in situations where suitable regulatory provisions are absent. This presentation offers insights from research conducted since 2009 with Professor Katina Michael and Associate Professor MG Michael into the social, ethical and regulatory implications of LBS, pointing to the elements of a consultative, transdisciplinary methodological framework for studying and designing LBS that are geared toward care applications and usability contexts.
Roba Abbas is a Lecturer and Academic Program Director with the Faculty of Business and Law at the University of Wollongong, Australia. She has a PhD in location-based services regulation and has received competitive grants for research addressing global challenges in areas related to co-design and socio-technical systems, operations management, robotics, social media and other emerging technologies. Her current research interests include methodological approaches to complex socio-technical systems design. More recently, she has delivered talks and co-organized panels for Yale University, The Alan Turing Institute, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Arizona State University and Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences. Dr Abbas is Co-Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society and was the Technical Program Chair for the IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society (ISTAS20) hosted by Arizona State University in November 2020. From 2005 to 2010, she was a Product Manager with Internetrix, Wollongong.
Jeremy V. Pitt Imperial College London
Intelligent Systems and Self-Organising Systems
Jeremy V. Pitt is Professor of Intelligent and Self-Organising Systems in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at Imperial College London. He received a B.Sc. in Computer Science from the University of Manchester and a Ph.D. in Computing from Imperial College (University of London). He has been teaching and researching Artificial Intelligence and Human-Computer Interaction for over thirty years, where his research programme has used computational logic to specify algorithmic models of social processes, with applications in cyber-physical and socio-technical systems, especially for sustainable, fair and legitimate self-governance. He has collaborated on research projects extensively in Europe, but also in India and New Zealand, and has held visiting professorial positions in Italy, Japan and Poland. He has published more than 200 articles in journals, conferences and workshops, and this work has received several Best Paper awards. He is a trustee of AITT (the Association for Information Technology Trust), a Fellow of the BCS (British Computer Society) and of the IET (Institution of Engineering and Technology), and in 2018 was appointed as Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Technology & Society magazine.
Roger Clarke Australian National University
Roger Clarke is a consultant on strategic and policy aspects of advanced information technologies. He is also a dilettante researcher, with hundreds of published papers and over 10,000 Google citations. He has been active in privacy and surveillance consultancy, research and advocacy since the early 1970s, and has published over 100 papers in the area. He originated the term 'dataveillance' in 1986, and also coined 'the digital persona', 'identity silo', '(id)entification' and 'dissidentity', to assist in the analysis of information technology's impacts on privacy.
Steve Mann University of Toronto | BlueberryX.com
Steve Mann is the founder and CTO of BlueberryX.com, the world's first brain-sensing context-aware eyeglass. He is a Visiting Full Professor, Stanford University, Department of Electrical Engineering and a Full Professor, University of Toronto, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. He is Chair of the Silicon Valley Innovation & Entrepreneurship Forum (SVIEF) and Founding Member of the IEEE Council on Extended Intelligence. He invented wearable computing in his childhood, brought this invention to MIT to found the MIT wearable computing project, and according to Nicholas Negroponte "persisted in his vision and ended up founding a new discipline." He invented, designed, and built the world's first smartwatch in 1998 (patent filed 1999, featured on cover of Linux Journal July 2000) which he presented at IEEE ISSCC 2000 where he was named "The father of the wearable computer". Inventor of HDR (High Dynamic Range) imaging, used in more than 2 billion smartphones. He has founded companies with valuation in excess of $1 billion, together with students.
M. G. Michael Independent Researcher
M. G. Michael PhD (ACU), MA (Hons) (MacqUni), MTheol (SydUni), BTheol (SCD), BA (SydUni) is an independent researcher. He was formerly an Honorary Associate Professor in the School of Computing and Information Technology at the University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia. Michael is a theologian and historian with cross-disciplinary qualifications in the humanities, who introduced the concept of überveillance into the privacy and bioethics literature
Christine Perakslis Johnson and Wales University | Arizona State University
Benefits and Risks of the Converging Veillances
The four veillances (i.e. surveillance, dataveillance, sousveillance, and uberveillance) continue to converge, enabling diverse actors to aggregate vast amounts of data gleaned from the micro-, meso-, and macro-levels of society. At the micro-level, embodied computing, or body-centered computing, has evolved from wearable and bearable devices to implants, bionic technology, and ingestible sensors. At the meso-level, technology affords ordinary citizens new capabilities to record everyday life experiences including other people, places, processes, or procedures. At the macro-level, the Internet of Things and People (IoTaP) also continues to evolve with an intensification of interconnected devices, systems, people, and services to link to the infrastructures around us. What are the current and emerging benefits of the converging of the veillances? What are categories of risks we should address?
Christine Perakslis serves as an educator and consultant for various organizations. She serves as a researcher with publications and presentations focusing on the social implications of technology, group integration competencies, and behavioral motivators/psychometrics. Perakslis is a member of various associations and serves in the capacity of a peer-reviewer, as well as a member of advisory boards, program committees, and technical committees. Certificates and certifications include such areas as Advanced Graduate Studies, Lean Operations, Praendix Analyst, and Six Sigma.
Rys Farthing Reset Australia- Reset Tech | Oxford University
Young People’s Concerns on the Collection and Use of Geolocation Data
Children and young people are now ‘datafied’ before they are even born; from pregnancy apps and heartbeat monitors to ultrasounds shared on social media, their data is extracted and shared before they even take their first breath. This data collection continues throughout childhood, from AI-enabled baby monitors to connected toys. One estimate suggests that in Advertising Tech alone, over 72 million data points are collected about children by the time they reach 13. The amount of data that is now held about younger generations is truly staggering and presents unique risks for the realisation of children’s rights.
Of all this data, the children and young people I speak with in Australia are most concerned about the collection and use of geolocation data. Children have a right to privacy, and this right is important to them. From childhood fantasies about finding secret gardens and hidden worlds like Narnia, to playing in hidden spots in the playground and out-of-view treehouses, private spaces have always been important to children (and scary for parents!). But it appears that this non-stop surveillance through geolocation data is both eroding children's sense of imagination about private spaces and replacing it with worries about their personal safety. This discussion will look at what Australian young people have been saying about geolocation data, and the need for greater regulation around its collection and use.
Rys Farthing is the Director of Children's Policy at Reset Tech Australia, a think tank and campaigning organisation set up to tackle digital threats to democracy. Rys has worked for NGOs in Australia, the US and UK, with a focus on realising children and young people’s rights, and increasingly their rights in a digital world. She is a 'recovering' academic and has held posts at the University of Oxford, and RMIT University.
Toby Shulruff U.S. National Network to End Domestic Violence | Arizona State University
Every Move You Make: Surveillance and Gender-based Violence
Location data is routinely used as a means to exert control over victims of gender-based violence. Using easily accessible, often built-in tools including social apps, tracking devices, phone accounts, and monitoring software, abusive partners track victims' movements in real time or interrogate their recent history. This abuse isolates victims from support and social connection, restricts their independence, causes intense anxiety and a feeling of always being watched. Conversely, the very same technologies are also used to connect with friends and family, protect children and pets from abuse, call for help to a specific location, or monitor convicted offenders. Choice about when and with whom to share our location should be built into location-enabled technologies from the beginning, with the privacy needs of the most vulnerable at the center of our care and design methods.
Toby Shulruff (she/her) works to build the capacity of communities to understand, make choices about, and ultimately shape the technologies that are woven into the fabric of our lives. Toby is a writer, trainer, project manager, and consultant - and a graduate student in the new Public Interest Technology program at Arizona State University. Toby works at the intersection of technology and gender-based violence as a Senior Technology Safety Specialist at the Safety Net Project of the National Network to End Domestic Violence (US)
Jason Sargent Swinburne University of Technology
Geocoding our humanity: Markers of people, place & time
This presentation will use imagery to posit the viewer into moments of time and place to consider the implications of data coupling identity+location of oppressed populations. Vignettes (some historical and some from a personal 20 year research journey) will include the liberation of Auschwitz (pre digital revolution), the Balkan Crisis/ Sarajevo and Srebrenica (the first technology-enabled humanitarian crisis, Zeitgeist for the arrival of the World Wide Web), and the post digital revolution protracted forced migration of Karen refugees on the Thai-Burma Border and recent land data governance struggles of the Adivasi of the Satpuda Ranges of India. The presentation will highlight geocoding as a powerful témoignage/testimony lens and touch on elements of trust, constructivist co-design, power relationships and conclude with a call to action for responsible collection, curation and diffusion of oppressed population’s geocoded data.
Jason Sargent co-directs the Information Systems for Social Impact Research Group, Swinburne University of Technology and has spent his entire academic, scholarship and research career bringing people and technology together for a better world. He has been the academic lead of Swinburne’s internationally awarded ICT for Social Impact India Project (2014-present), and currently oversees humanitarian community projects in Melbourne, Pal India, Pakpattan Pakistan, and Mogadishu and Hirshabelle State Somalia.
In 2003, Jason’s undergraduate Honours thesis (‘The Digital Aid Framework – DAF’) introduced to the field of technology-enabled humanitarian relief a conceptual, end-to-end technology integration framework for humanitarian (refugee) relief operations. The DAF thesis was awarded the PWC Award for highest grade achieved in an Honours project in the Faculty of Informatics, University of Wollongong and the Association of Computing Machinery (ACM) Ubiquity article summarising DAF was subsequently used as course material at the University of California-Davis and has been downloaded ~180,000 times. Jason’s doctoral candidature was based in the University of Sydney’s Centre for Research on Computer Supported Learning and Cognition (CoCo Lab), Faculty of Education & Social Work. His 2012 thesis explored complexities in attainment of higher education by refugees on the Thai-Burma Border (TBB) through a trinity of theoretical lenses: social capital, communities of practice and blended learning and came about through his pro bono service with the Melbourne-based grassroots Refugee Tertiary Education Committee (RTEC). His doctoral fieldwork was carried out on the TBB near Mae Pa and Mae Sot, Thailand.
In August 2020, Jason was humbled to be invited to become an Ambassador for Amnesty International Australia's 'My New Neighbour' campaign, advocating for a fairer community sponsorship program for refugees.
Elma Hajric Smart Cities NSF NRT | Arizona State University
The ‘Smart Campus’ and Geo-Surveillance
With ‘smart city’ narratives increasing adoptions of sensor-filled ‘Internet of Things’ devices used for surveillance in public spaces, campuses have become testing beds for deploying such ‘smart’ technologies, including geographical elements of location tracking such as smart light poles. This discussion investigates the campus as a unique smart city and considers the sociotechnical implications of the smart campus with regards to surveillance capacities and issues related to data rights such as ownership and privacy.
Elma Hajric is a PhD student in Human and Social Dimensions of Science and Technology and a National Research Trainee in the NSF for Citizen-Centered Smart Cities and Smart Living. Her research focuses on governance of emerging technologies and data topics pertaining to surveillance, privacy, and ownership.
Rob Nicholls University of New South Wales
Do as I Say, not as I do: Biometric regulation and exceptions
Going to a café in Australia requires using a QR code to locate yourself. On many devices, this is opened using the biometric data of either a face or thumbprint. In most Australian states, the smartphone app requires information from a photograph-based identity such as a driver’s licence. This location data is intended to be used solely for contact tracing in the context of COVID-19. However, the data has already been used by at least one state police force. In the same context, Google has been found to have breached competition law by failing to disclosure all of the steps required to switch off location tracking. In the US, the Federal Trade Commission has required that Everalbum destroy both data and algorithms used in unauthorised facial recognition. This creates a complex regulatory environment where governments at multiple levels are engaged in activities that might be prohibited in the private sector. Whereas this might be acceptable in the context of COVID-19, it is both confusing and inconsistent.
This paper reviews the ways in which governments at multiple levels use both biometric data and location data in ways that would otherwise be unacceptable or prohibited. It suggests that some of the regulatory changes (competition, privacy and data protection) that have been put in place in response to increasing commercial biosurveillance will be difficult to sustain if governments act in a way that is inconsistent with them.
Rob Nicholls is an associate professor in regulation and governance at the UNSW Business School and a visiting professional fellow at UTS Sydney Law. His research interests focus on competition law, the regulation of networked and platform industries with an emphasis on the effects of technology in the regulatory space. His PhD examined the regulation of the media in Australia and his platform industry analysis reflects this. Rob has had a thirty-year career concentrating on competition, regulation and governance. His first degree was in electronics and communications engineering from the University of Birmingham and he was awarded his PhD and MA by UNSW Sydney. Before moving to academia, he worked for Webb Henderson, the ACCC and spent twelve years as a client-facing consultant at Gilbert + Tobin, including as a partner. Rob is an accredited mediator and from 2012 to 2020 was Australia’s Independent Telecommunications Adjudicator.
Jumana Abu-Ghazaleh Pivot for Humanity
Location, Location, Location: Making Space for GIS Ethics
Geography is not just a lens through which we understand and interpret the world. It is not purely academic, rarely objective, and often weaponized. Today, geography is the tool of the powerful – the platform of choice for those whose goals go beyond making sense of and learning about the world to actively shaping, planning, and too frequently, manipulating it. If data is the new oil, then geography is its refinery: geography creates new ways to use the constant stream of data–for profit, for good, for power, for politics, for justice, for surveillance, for oppression and for other harms. As a result, GIS educators and practitioners find themselves increasingly subject to ethical and moral quandaries: in an ever more heavily tech-intermediated world, how can GIS be proactively ethical? When practitioners need clarity and guidance, where can they turn? Who or what can they consult? A code of ethics, however inspiring and resonant, remains largely ineffectual.
This discussion will focus on shifting ethics from theory to practice. We will explore the use of a few key geographic concepts (place, location, proximity and distance) to inform how the AAG could transform ethics from a well-intentioned statement of intent into a set of norms that are practical, usable, consistent and impactful.
Jumana Abu-Ghazaleh is the President of Pivot for Humanity, the organization founded in 2018 to professionalize the extractive, data-driven social tech industry and foster a responsible, ethical, and accountable internet. Pivot's goal is to compel an industry in crisis to adopt universal standards, norms and values that will pivot, or reorient, the industry toward its original mission: serving humanity. In 2014, Jumana founded and launched zanie, an app designed to help employers shrink virtual distance and create a thriving and emotionally engaged digital workforce. zanie helps companies build stronger distributed teams by facilitating conversations that build interpersonal trust between remote members and lead to innovative, productive, and fulfilling work.
Jumana's first career was in marketing and brand strategy and communications, where she spent over 20 years developing strategies for organizations such as American Express, Yahoo, Coca-Cola, Bank of America, The RobinHood Foundation, Ally Bank, and Hilton Hotels. She is responsible for creating Capital One’s “What’s in your wallet?” campaign. Jumana earned her MBA from Harvard Business School and a degree in Literature and Philosophy from Claremont McKenna College.
Theresa Dirndorfer Anderson Connecting Stones
Theresa Dirndorfer Anderson is based in Sydney, Australia. Anderson is an active contributor to local and international initiatives to humanize data science. Her scholarly work engages with the fundamental concepts of uncertainty, relevance, and resilience in individual, organizational, and social settings. Anderson's research interests include data ethics, infrastructure politics, emerging technologies, and digital youth. Her professional experience includes serving as associate professor and the inaugural director of the Master of Data Science & Innovation program at the University of Technology Sydney, working as a political research analyst for research centers and think tanks, and serving as a diplomat and environmental education officer. Anderson earned her MA and PhD in information science from the University of Technology Sydney, MA in international security studies and arms control from Lancaster University, and BA in diplomatic history and Soviet/Russian studies from the University of Pennsylvania.
Mathew Mytka Greater Than Learning
Mathew Mytka is a humanist, generalist, father, gardener, wannabe extreme sports enthusiast, and Co-founder of Greater Than Learning. He’s worked across digital identity, e-learning systems, behavioral design, decentralized technologies, and spent the past few years helping organizations to design more trustworthy products and services. Mat is an IEEE Member, and co-founder of Greater Than Learning and co-founder of Digitool Lab.
Nicole Stephensen GroundUp Consulting
Nicole Stephensen is Principal Consultant at Ground Up Consulting, a boutique firm she established in 2011. There, she provides capacity building and privacy by design services across government, private and not for profit sectors. With over 20 years in the privacy profession, Nicole believes in building sustainable privacy programs and embedding ‘privacy mindset’ into organisational culture. She is a sought-after speaker about privacy and its interface with information security, risk management, ethics and trust. She is a subject matter expert and guest lecturer for tertiary education providers in Australia and Canada and is author of course curricula focused on information privacy rights and privacy and cybersecurity acculturation. Nicole is a leading member of the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP) and hosts the IAPP’s KnowledgeNet Chapter for Queensland. Prior to its incorporation into the larger IAPP in 2019, Nicole was also a member of the International Association of Privacy Professionals ANZ Chapter (iappANZ) where she sat for three consecutive terms on the Board. She is on the Advisory Board for the Centre for Data Leadership, an initiative of the Smart Cities Council of Australia-New Zealand (SCCANZ) and was the 2020 SCCANZ Smart Cities Leadership Award winner. Nicole served a three-year term as Executive Director for Privacy and Data Protection at the Internet of Things Security Institute, where she co-authored the IoTSI Security Framework for Smart Cities and Critical Infrastructure and hosted a bi-weekly podcast, Privacy Matters. Nicole additionally lends her privacy expertise to the digital policy arena – focusing on matters affecting children and young people, such as privacy and digital footprints, online safety, cyber-bullying, image-based abuse and child exploitation.
Emerging Location-based Services and Technologies, GeoSurveillance and Social Justice Issues
Date and Time: Wednesday, August 11, 2021 9:30 am - 12:45 pm Australian Eastern Time
Status: Event Ended
Watch the Recording for this Webinar below!
Watch the Recording of The Three "Veillances" (Pitt) below!
Watch the Recording of Converging Veillances (Perakslis) below!
Watch the Recording of Young People's Concerns (Farthing) below!
Watch the Recording of Every Move You Make (Shulruff) below!
Watch the Recording of Geocoding our Humanity (Sargent) below!
Watch the Recording of Implications of LBS (Abbas) below!
Watch the Recording of Smart Campus and Geosurveillance (Hajric) below!
Watch the Recording of Do As I Say, Not As I Do (Nicholls) below!
Watch the Recording of Location, Location, Location (Abu-Ghazaleh) below!
Watch the Recording of Concluding Commentary (Abbas) below!
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